Urology, also known as genitourinary surgery, is the branch of medicine that focuses on surgical and medical diseases of the male and female genitourinary tract. The field of Urology has seen dramatic changes over the past two decades. It has moved from an open surgical speciality with limited treatment options to a speciality that has enthusiastically embraced minimally invasive techniques and new drug treatments. As the life expectancy has gone up, urological conditions such as prostate cancer, urinary incontinence, and lower urinary tract symptoms are becoming more prevalent.

Uroflowmetry is a simple, non invasive diagnostic test used to assess bladder and sphincter function.

It is performed using a machine called the Uroflowmeter, where in the person has to urinate into a special funnel that is connected to the sensor. The sensor then calculates the amount of urine voided, rate of flow of urine and the length of time until completion of the void. This information is converted into a graph by a software. The interpretation of this graph helps the doctor to diagnose if there is any obstruction to the lower urinary tract.

In case of lower urinary tract obstruction additional procedures like Retrograde Cystography, Cystometry and Cystoscopy may be required.

Visual Internal Urethrotomy or VIU is a surgery done to treat the narrowing in the urethra, often referred to as stricture.

VIU is an endoscopic procedure performed under anaesthesia where in a telescope is passed through the urethra and the stricture is cut open with a knife or laser to increase the calibre of the urethra. Following the procedure a per urethral tube (Foley's catheter) is kept in place for 5-7 days.

The success rate of the procedure depends on the location of the stricture, its length and its thickness.

Few patients may also require to undergo a major reconstructive procedure called Urethroplasty later.

Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy is a endourological procedure used to remove the stones from the kidney and upper ureter.

PCNL is typically done under spinal or general anaesthesia. The surgery is performed by making a key hole incision in the patients flank. A tube is placed through the incision into the kidney under X ray guidance. Following which the stone is visualised using a small telescope. Under direct vision the stone is broken into small pieces with a device called the Lithotriptor and removed.

This procedure has nearly replaced the open surgery for Kidney stone. It has a significantly less post operative pain, a shorter hospital stay and early return to work. This procedure has a higher success rate compared to extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL), which requires multiple sittings.

Although PCNL is a safe procedure, there could be few potential complications like Bleeding, Infection or failure to complete clear the stone.

Ureterorenoscopy or URS is an endourological procedure in used to diagnose and treat urinary tract problems including stones.

URS is typically performed under spinal or general anaesthesia. In this procedure a small telescope is inserted through the urethra into the bladder and the ureter. This procedure is performed to remove the large stones from the urethra without making incisions.